Arunachal Pradesh










Area : 78,438 sq km.   Capital : Dispur     Population : 2,66,38,407 Principal Languages : Assamese



The word ‘Assam’ as interpreted by some scholars is derived from the Sanskrit word Asoma meaning peerless or unparalleled. But the widely accepted opinion of the academic circles today is that the term has come from the original name of the Ahoms, who ruled the land for about six hundred years prior to its annexation by the British. The races like Austric, Mongolian, Dravidian and Aryan that came to this land long-long ago have contributed to its composite culture. Thus Assam has a rich legacy of culture and civilization.

Assam was known as Pragjyotisha or the place of eastern astronomy during the epic period and later named as Kamrupa. The earliest epigraphic reference to the kingdom of Kamrupa is found in the Allahabad pillar inscription of king Samudragupta. Kamrupa is mentioned as a Pratyanta or frontier state outside the Gupta empire but with friendly and subordinate relation to it. Hiuen Sang, the Chinese scholar pilgrim who visited Kamrupa in about 743 AD on an invitation of its monarch, Kumar Bhaskar Varman, left a record of the kingdom he called Kamolupa. Kamrupa also figured in the writings of the Arabian historian Alberuni in the eleventh century. Thus, from the epic period down to the twelfth century AD, the eastern frontier kingdom was known as Pragjyotisha and Kamrupa and kings called themselves ‘Lords of Pragjyotisha’.
The advent of the Ahoms across the eastern hills in 1228 AD was the turning point in Assam history. They ruled Assam nearly for six centuries. The Burmese entered through the eastern borders and overran the territory at a time when court intrigues and dissensions were sapping the vitality of the Ahom royalty. It became a British protectorate in 1826 when the Burmese ceded Assam to the British under the provision of the treaty of Yandabo.

Assam is the sentinel of north-east India and gateway of the north eastern states. The state is close to India’s international borders with Bangladesh and Bhutan. Assam is surrounded by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh on the north, Manipur, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh on the east and Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram on the south.


Assam is an agricultural state. Agriculture occupies an important place in the economy of the state. The principal food crop is rice. The cash crops are jute, tea, cotton, oilseeds, sugarcane, potato, etc. Noteworthy horticulture items are orange, banana, pineapple, arecanut, coconut, guava, mango, jackfruit and citrus fruits. The state has an estimated 39.44 lakh hectares gross cropped area of which net area sown is about 27.01 lakh hectares.


Assam is known for her rich forest wealth. The total area under forests was 20.24 lakh hectares at the end of March 1999, out of which area under reserved forests was 17.42 lakh hectares. This constituted 22.21 per cent of the total forest area.


Irrigation potential created up to 1999-2000 was about 8.98 lakh hectares of which the Irrigation Department had covered an area of 4.95 lakh hectares.

The major power stations are Chandrapur Thermal Project, Namrup Thermal Project and a few Mobile Gas Turbine Units along with a mini hydro-electric project. Revitalising the Thermal Power Station of Bongaigaon and completing the Karbi-Langpi Project will boost the power supply in the state. Approval has been received for Tipaimukh Dam Project.


Roads :The total length of roads in the State was 34,000 km which includes 2,038 km of National Highways. The construction of 160 km of barbed wire fencing and 27 km of the border road along the Indo-Bangladesh International have been completed.

Railways :The length of railway tract in Assam is 2,391.76 km comprising 1,061.29 km under broad-gauge and 1,330.47 km under meter-gauge lines. The extension of broad-gauge line from Guwahati to Dibrugarh has been completed and the Naranarayana Setu, the third bridge over the Brahmaputra at Jogighopa-Pancharatna was opened in 1998.

Aviation : The regular civil air services are operating from Lokopriya Gopinath Bordoloi Airport (Guwahati), Salonibari (Tezpur), Mohanbari (Dibrugarh), Kumbhirgram (Silchar), Rawriah (Jorhat) and Silonibari (North Lakhimpur).


Sl.No.  District Area (sq. km)  Population (in lakh)  Headquarter
1. Dhubri 2,838 16.35 Dhubri
2. Kokrajhar 3,129 9.30 Kokrajhar
3. Bongaigaon 2,510 9.06 Bongaigaon
4. Goalpara 1,824 8.22 Goalpara
5. Barpeta 3,245 16.42 Barpeta
6. Nalbari 2,257 11.38 Nalbari
7. Kamrup 4,345 25.15 Guwahati
8. Darrang 3,481 15.04 Mangaldoi
9. Sonitpur 5,324 16.78 Tezpur
10. Lakhimpur 2,277 8.89 North Lakhimpur
11. Dhemaji 3,217 5.89 Dhemaji
12. Morigaon 1,704 7.76 Morigaon
13. Nagaon 3,831 23.15 Nagaon
14. Golaghat 3,502 9.46 Golaghat
15. Jorhat 2,851 10.09 Jorhat
16. Sibsagar 2,668 10.53 Sibsagar
17. Dibrugarh 3,381 11.72 Dibrugarh
18. Tinsukia 3,790 11.50 Tinsukia
19. Karbi-Anglong 10,434 8.12 Diphu
20. North Cachar Hills 4,888 1.86 Haflong
21. Karimganj 1,809 10.04 Karimganj
22. Hailakandi 1,327 5.43 Hailakandi
23. Cachar 3,786 14.42 Silchar
Site Designed and Hosted by:
National Informatics Centre, Meghalaya State Centre,
Content maintained and updated by : ICAR - Agricultural Technology Application Research Institute, Umiam (Barapani)