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Mizoram


Area : 21,081 sq km.  Capital : Aizawl Population : 8,91,058 Principal Languages : Mizo & English

HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY

Mizoram is a mountainous region which became the 23rd state of the Indian Union in February 1987. It was one of the districts of Assam till 1972 when it became a Union Territory. After being annexed by the British in 1891, for the first few years, Lushai Hills in the north remained under Assam while the southern half remained under Bengal. Both these parts were amalgamated in 1898 into one district called Lushai Hills District under the Chief Commissioner of Assam. With the implementation of the North Eastern Reorganization Act in 1972, Mizoram became a Union Territory and a sequel to the signing of the historic memorandum of settlement between the Government of India and the Mizo National Front in 1986, it was granted statehood on 20 February 1987. Sandwiched between Myanmar in the east and the south and Bangladesh in the west, Mizoram occupies an area of great strategic importance in the north-eastern corner of India. Mizoram has great natural beauty and an endless variety of landscape. It is rich in fauna and flora. 
The origin of the word ‘Mizo’ is not known. The Mizos came under the influence of the British Missionaries in the 19th Century. Now most of the Mizos are Christians. Mizo language has no script of its own. The missionaries introduced the Roman script for the Mizo language and formal education. Literacy in the state has grown rapidly, and Mizoram literacy at 88.8 percent today, is the second highest in the country. The state government is striving hard to attain the top position in the near future.

AGRICULTURE 

About 80 percent of the people of Mizoram are engaged in agricultural pursuits. The main pattern of agriculture followed is Jhum or Shifting cultivation. Of the total 21 lakh ha. of land estimated, 6.30 lakh hectares of land is available for cultivation of horticulture crops. The existing area under different horticulture crops account for about 4127.6 hectares, which is only 6.55 percent of the estimated potential area. This indicates the vast scope for horticulture crops to flourish in Mizoram. The main horticulture crops are fruit crops viz. Mandarin Orange, banana, Passion Fruit, Grapes, Hatkora, Pineapple, Papaya, etc. and flowers like Anthurium, Bird of Paradise, Orchid, Chrysanthemum, Rose and other subsidiary seasonal flowers. Spices like Ginger, turmeric, Black Pepper and Bird’s eye Chillies are also grown. People have also started extensive cultivation of oilpalm, medicinal and aromatic plants.

IRRIGATION

The ultimate surface irrigation potential is estimated at 70,000 hectares of which 45,000 hectares is under flow and 25,000 hectares by construction and completing 70 pucca minor irrigation projects and six lift irrigation projects for raising double and triple crops in a year.

TRANSPORT

Total road length in the state is 5,982.25 km (BRO & state PWD). Rail link in the state has been established at Bairabi. Aizawl is connected by air. In order to have a better connectivity, the Government has undertaken the Mizoram State Roads Projects with a total cost of Rs. 350 crore under funds provided by the World Bank. Connectivity under PMGSY covering a total length of 2,421 km connecting 384 villages of Mizoram is making steady progress.

AREA, POPULATION AND HEADQUARTERS OF DISTRICTS

Sl. No. District Area (sq. km)  Population  Headquarter
1. Aizawl 3,576.31 3,39,812 Aizawl
2. Lunglei  4,538.00 1,37,155 Lunglei
3. Chimtuipui 1,399.90 60,823 Saiha
4. Lawngtlai 2,557.10 73,050 Lawngtlai
5. Champai 3,185.85 1,01,389 Champhai
6. Kolasib 1,282.51 60,977 Kolasib
7. Mamit 3,025.75 62,313 Mamit
8. Serchhip  1,421.60 55,539 Serchhip
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